Financial reporting is an essential aspect of any business as it provides valuable information about the financial performance of the organization. One of the most widely used financial statements is the profit and loss statement, which provides an overview of the company's revenues and expenses over a specified period. Power BI is a powerful data visualization tool that provides the ability to create dynamic and interactive financial reports. In this insight, we will explore the process of creating a profit and loss statement in Power BI.
In this insight, we are going to use an Excel to define our P&L structure. The first spreadsheet defines the profit and loss structure and contains three columns: a column with the name, a column with the sort order, and a column called "Show Detail". The sort order column is used to sort the profit and loss in Power BI, and the "Show Detail" column is used to determine whether underlying levels are to be displayed (e.g. revenue) or whether it is a calculated field (e.g. gross margin). The second spreadsheet maps the GL (General Ledger) accounts to the profit and loss structure.
The P&L structure looks something like this:
The mapping can look like this:
In this example, we are going to create a relationship between the GL entries and the P&L structure based on GL Account Subcategory Code.
Once the Excel spreadsheets are created, we can load them in our Power BI model or in a data warehouse. The P&L structure we can just load in Power BI does not need any modelling and we will call it PL Header. The P&L mapping sheet we need to join with our table contains all our GL entries (here called GL Posting Fact table). We need to add the “Header Index” columns to this table so we can join it with our PL Header table. The final model should look something like this:
We then need to sort the Header column from PL Header by “Header Index” to ensure that the P&L is sorted correctly. Next, we will create the DAX measures that will drive our P&L report. The first measure is a measure that sums up the GL entry amount:
GL Posting Amount = SUM('GL Posting Fact'[M_Amount])
The next step is to create a measure that calculates the running total:
Running Total (PL) = CALCULATE (
[GL Posting Amount],
ALL ( 'PL Header' ),
'PL Header'[PL Header Id]
<= MAX ( 'PL Header'[Header Index )
'GL Account'[GL Account Income/Balance] = "Income Statement"
The running total measure is calculated using the CALCULATE() function, which takes the sum of all previous rows. For example, to calculate the gross margin, we want to take the sum of Revenues and Purchases, and therefore, we take the sum of all rows smaller than or equal to header index 3 (Gross Margin). In a financial system, revenue and costs always have opposite signs, and therefore, this measure will correctly calculate the difference between the two. The second filter argument filters the GL Account table only for income statement related GL accounts ('GL Account'[GL Account Income/Balance] = "Income Statement") because we do not want to take into account the balance GL accounts.
Finally, we create the final measure that we will use in our Power BI report:
GL Posting Amount (PL) = IF (
HASONEVALUE ( 'PL Header'[Header] ),
VALUES ( 'PL Header'[Show Detail] ),
0, [Running Total (PL)],
1, [GL Posting Amount]
The first step of the calculation, HASONEVALUE ( 'PL Header'[Header] ), checks whether the PL Header table has only one unique value for the Header column. This step is necessary because the measure needs to know if there is only one header value in order to determine the calculation result.
Next, the SWITCH() function is used to evaluate the VALUES ( 'PL Header'[Show Detail] ), which are the values from the Show Detail column in the PL Header table. If the Show Detail value is equal to 0, the measure returns the result of the Running Total (PL) calculation. If the Show Detail value is equal to 1, the measure returns the result of the GL Posting Amount calculation.
In conclusion, Power BI is a powerful tool for financial reporting that allows businesses to create meaningful insights and make informed decisions. By utilizing the steps outlined in this insight, businesses can create a detailed profit and loss statement that will provide a complete picture of the financial performance of the company.